Monthly Archives: October 2016

Glass Ionomer Filling

Glass ionomer cement (GIC) is one of the materials used in the field of dentistry as a filling material. This binding material is also known as dental cement. It also finds application in the luting process. It is commonly used in restoration and repair of teeth, filling cavities, and as a liner in other types of fillings, and was first introduced for dental care in the year 1972. Chemical bonding takes place between dental hard tissues and this material. GIC also releases fluoride which prevents further decay.

Preparation and Application

Preparation of GIC is achieved through mixture of a powder and a liquid. The material is set due to a acid-base reaction. The materials used in making GIC filling are fluoroaluminosilicate (powder) and polyacrylic acid (liquid).

Glass Ionomer Liquid
The liquid form of glass ionomer was earlier available in the form of aqueous solutions.The disadvantage of using the aqueous solutions was that they were highly viscous. Over time, these liquids used to gel. Nowadays, this liquid is available in the form of co-polymers. These co-polymers are available with maleic, itaconic, and tricarboxylic acids. These acids decrease the gelation tendency and viscosity of today’s glass ionomer liquids, and also increase the reactivity of liquids.

Glass Ionomer Powder
The powder form is chemically composed of calcium fluoroaluminosilicate glass. The aluminosilicate proportion in powder form is high, and therefore, the reactivity too is greater. The fluoride present in this chemical also is useful, since it plays the role of ceramic flux. Additives like zinc oxide, barium, strontium, and lanthanum are responsible for radiopacity. The raw materials used in the preparation of glass ionomer are heated at a temperature ranging from 1100 °C to 1500 °C.

A large cavity in the teeth requires to be filled with some kind of sealant/filling material. Glass ionomers prove to be useful for the purpose of such fillings. If the cavity is big enough (i.e. it reaches below the gum line) this material proves to be especially helpful. These fillings can also be used for the front teeth.

The benefits of using glass ionomer sealants are enlisted below:
The procedure doesn’t require any kind of prior preparation.
There are less chances of occurrence of problems like tooth decay and leaking. Firm bonding of this filling material with the teeth is the reason why these problems do not occur.
The filling, apart from binding firmly to the teeth, also helps maintain dental health. This is because fluoride is released by this material over time.
This material shrinks very less in comparison to other sealants.
Here are the disadvantages/limitations of using glass ionomer cement.

  • GIC does not match the color of the tooth very accurately
    The fillings alternative to glass ionomer such as composite ceramics are much stronger. It undergoes wear and tear quite easily.
  • GIC filling doesn’t require much preparation. However, the treatment procedure itself is a lengthy one. Each and every layer of this filling has to be bonded separately, and it takes time to fully set and harden; the time required for the whole process is therefore, greater.
  • Sensitivity to water can be observed during the setting phase.
  • The other limitations like susceptibility to abrasion; brittleness, and solubility make it prone to damage.

GIC is very useful owing to the benefits being offered. However, the limitations of the material should also be taken into consideration.

How to clean Brown Spots on Teeth

Shimmering white teeth is a fantasy for some, probably about it. Not just do chestnut spots on teeth look revolting, yet they are additionally an indication of terrible dental cleanliness, which looks for prompt restorative consideration. Perused more on these spots, in this article.

It’s normal to see people neglecting oral health for reasons unknown. Bad teeth, gum diseases, spots on teeth, all have become so common. Brown spots on teeth is the staining of the teeth due to a variety of reasons. And there is no need to mention that people always search for ways to get rid of this problem, as it prevents them from flashing a toothy smile. On a serious note, spots on the teeth should be dealt with seriously, as it is a serious sign of bad dental health, which can lead to many problems in the future. The stain deposition starts slowly on the tooth enamel, and if neglected, it proceeds to the open cracks and crevices, and deposits there. Let’s now understand in detail what causes these small brown spots on teeth, and also what can be done to get rid of them.

Causes of Brown Spots on Teeth

  • Smoking has so many side effects, one of them being development of brown spots on the teeth. Chain smokers are greatly prone to develop these unwanted spots, as the smoke deposits unwanted chemicals on the teeth, causing them to develop ugly stains.
  • Consumption of beverages like alcohol, soft drinks and coffee in huge proportions, on a daily basis, also contributes to the development of these brown stains on the teeth.
  • Neglected dental hygiene also causes stained teeth. Harmful bacteria are deposited on the teeth due to unclean teeth, and the staining occurs.
  • Use of certain medications and antibiotics is also said to cause staining of the teeth.
  • Chewing of tobacco frequently also causes the development of brown spots on the teeth.
  • The occurrence of discolored teeth can sometimes be a heredity factor, that is if your parents or someone in the family has got it, you may also get it.
  • Certain treatments like radiation therapy directly affect the tooth enamel, causing the stains.
  • Sometimes, too much fluoride in the water or toothpaste can cause the development of spots on the teeth, especially in children.
  • Aging is also one of the reasons.

Prevention and Treatment

Brown spots on teeth is not a serious issue, though strictly following certain measures of dental hygiene can prevent them.

  • Brush your teeth thrice daily, or for that matter after you eat anything. Use a whitening toothpaste, it will help diminish the spots.
  • A paste of baking soda and hydrogen peroxide is also helpful in treating the spots on teeth, as hydrogen peroxide is a proven bleaching agent. Apply this paste on your toothbrush and gently brush your teeth. Use the concentration under proper guidance of a dentist only.
  • Make use of antibacterial mouthwash. Mouthwash keeps the breath fresh and also removes the plaque deposition, diminishing the stains.
  • Consult your dentist if the occurrence is growing day by day. The doctor may suggest some cosmetic procedures to help get rid of the spots
  • Eat healthy food items, like lots of fruits and vegetables. Eating fresh food like vegetables and fruits has an indirect positive effect on dental health .
  • Last but not least, stop smoking, and the consumption of beverages like alcohol. If you do not stop, the brown marks would only get larger, making it more difficult to get rid of them.

This was also about brown spots on teeth. So, if you have a brown spot on the side of your tooth or anywhere else, don’t worry, consistency is the key to white teeth. Follow a proper dental health care regimen for some months, and then get into the good habits, and be ready to flash your toothy smile!

Tips to Tooth Abrasion

Sound magnificent white teeth are unquestionably a benefit and surely improve one’s facial excellence. For understanding that flawless million dollar grin, notwithstanding, one needs to take after a legitimate dental cleanliness regimen. The individuals who don’t do as such, are destined to wind up with recolored and harmed teeth. While brushing and flossing teeth unquestionably help in keeping up that impeccable grin, it is critical that you utilize a decent quality toothbrush. Brushing your teeth enthusiastically, particularly with a hard-swarmed toothbrush is one slip-up that you should never make. Tooth scraped spot, which is a dental issue that is portrayed by loss of polish covering or loss of tooth structure because of rubbing, is regularly a self-beset dental issue that emerges when one doesn’t utilize an appropriate toothbrush or enjoys enthusiastic brushing. Erosion from the hard abounds can antagonistically influence the veneer covering of the teeth. Look down to discover more on what causes this dental issue and how it can be dealt with.

Loss of Enamel Coating of Teeth


As mentioned earlier, the loss of enamel coating occurs when teeth are subjected to frictional forces. Enamel is the white coating that covers the crown. Underneath the enamel coating lies calcified tissue called dentin. Dentin protects the pulp or the inner part of the tooth that contains connective tissues, blood vessels and nerves. When one brushes his/her teeth vigorously with a hard-bristled toothbrush, the enamel coating of the teeth, especially around the gum line, starts wearing away. At times, friction from the abrasives used in the toothpaste may also be responsible for causing abrasion. While mild abrasives are an important ingredient of a toothpaste, as it helps in getting rid of the deposits on teeth, strong abrasives, however, may harm the enamel. Even dental devices that may be scraping against the teeth would also cause this dental problem. Those who frequently use toothpicks may see damaged enamel between their teeth. The loss of enamel causes dentin to be exposed and this makes the teeth very sensitive.

Bruxism, which refers to the habit of grinding or clenching teeth, could also make one susceptible to loss of enamel coating. Clenching or grinding of teeth subjects them to a lot of pressure and definitely leads to a loss of enamel coating at the edges. Parents must make sure that children don’t have a habit of grinding teeth or biting into hard objects like pencils or pens. These habits can certainly have an adverse impact on one’s dental health. Besides abrasion, there are other dental problems that can damage the enamel coating of the teeth. Tooth attrition refers to the gradual loss of enamel that occurs as we age. This is mainly caused due to tooth-to-tooth contact that occurs as we chew food. Tooth erosion, on the other hand, is mainly caused due to consumption of foods that are acidic in nature. Tobacco, caffeinated drinks and aerated beverages are quite harmful for teeth and one must refrain from excessive consumption of such foods and beverages.


The treatment of this dental problem would vary depending on the extent of damage caused by the mechanical or frictional forces. First of all, one must be very careful while brushing teeth. Since, using a hard-bristled toothbrush would cause a lot of harm, these must never be used. One must also use a very good quality fluoride toothpaste that helps in protecting the teeth. The way you brush your teeth is also very important. Do your gums bleed when brushing teeth? Well, various gum problems can occur due to improper brushing technique. The angle at which the bristles are placed along with gum line and the pressure applied on the teeth must be correct. If the bristles of the toothbrush start bending very soon, then it’s time you change the way you brush your teeth. Those who unconsciously grind their teeth, must use mouth guards in order to prevent damage to the enamel.

If your teeth are looking discolored or have a yellowish tinge, make it a point to consult a dentist. Cosmetic dentistry is a branch of dentistry that aims at restoration of teeth and correcting defects. Resin composites, glass ionomers or any other type of dental filling can be used for covering the part of the tooth that may have been affected by abrasion or erosion. Since loss of enamel often causes gum and tooth sensitivity, one may also need to use a toothpaste or gel specifically meant for sensitive gums and teeth. Since, saliva helps in maintaining the pH balance in the mouth and facilitates remineralization of tooth enamel, people suffering from decreased production of saliva, must also consult a doctor.

If discolored teeth have become a cause of serious concern for you and your teeth also seem to be losing the white enamel coating, consult a dentist soon. Pay attention to dental hygiene and follow the guidelines given by your dentist so that you are never robbed of your beautiful million dollar smile.

Internal Resorption Tips

In the accompanying article, the wonder of resorption that happens within the human tooth has been portrayed. Related therapeutic terms, the improvement of the complexity, cause and fitting treatment of such a condition has been depicted in the accompanying passages. To know more, read on.

Internal resorption is a pathological process, that affects the tooth. Since this phenomenon is a progressing condition and once started, it tends to affect the entire tooth, it would be better to get to know the anatomy of the tooth first. There 4 distinct layered parts of the human tooth, namely, enamel, dentin, the pulp and the root canal. Of course, there are several other external supporting features of the human dental anatomy, but let’s just concentrate on these 4 right now.

The enamel is the outermost covering of the tooth that is visible to us. The outer surface of the enamel is, of course, used by us for chewing.
Inside the enamel is the dentin, which takes up the maximum part of a human tooth. It is a porous tissue with hard features.

The third part is the pulp of the tooth. It contains all the blood vessels, nerves and the nutrition channels of the tooth. It’s the most sensitive part of the tooth and it does the job of keeping the tooth well nourished and well-connected to the central nervous system.
Last but not the least, the root (which is also a part of the root canal) of the tooth which keeps the tooth anchored into the gums and jaws.
In case of resorption, the dentin, pulp and root canal get affected.

How it Takes Place?

Now, the first thing we need to know about resorption that takes place inside our tooth is that this condition is asymptomatic. That is it does not show any symptoms till a certain measure or extent. Resorption as a pathological term is used to describe a process where, substances or structures of the human body undergo a certain lysis or assimilation. In this case, the resorption is of the dentin and to some extent of the pulp of the tooth.

In the event of trauma or infection, or under other circumstances, the dentin surrounding the pulpal (pulp) area, start resorption into the root canal. This causes the start of the resorption, which also starts causing lesions, that is damage to the tissues around the root canal, the pulpal and dentin components which continue to resorb into the canal. This process is basically a cave in of the dentin and pulp (in some cases also of enamel) into the root canal, from within. In some cases an injury to the tooth also damages the pulp where in the damaged nerves and cells harm the surrounding parts of the tooth which cause the resorption.

The causes are usually attributed to trauma and infection which are likely to cause this condition. Apart from that, natural and causeless resorption is also possible. The big problem is that being an asymptomatic condition, it is often rarely detected immediately. A common symptom is the occurrence of the ‘Pink tooth of Mummery’. This occurs due to the resorption of the pulp and some part of the dentin into the root canal and the root. Coloring takes place because of the hematologic (blood) staining of the remaining tooth takes place, which becomes visible through the enamel and gives the tooth a pinkish appearance.

Probable Causes and Implications

There are certain implications of the internal tooth resorption which have been listed as follows. Some of them might also be noticed and connoted to be some symptoms of the condition.

  • Trauma of the enamel, gums or the dentin leads to inflammation of the pulp and some parts of the root and root canal.
  • The process sometimes gets activated naturally when the pH-value in the tooth shifts. It is a very complicated process known as chelation (chemical reaction), which eventually results into the dissolution of the dentin and enamel.
  • Uncontrolled and progressing resorption can also cause fracture of the tooth, leading to external resorption.

Treatment and Diagnosis

There are 4 ways in which this ailment can be detected, namely, visual examination, Rtg diagnosis, light and electron microscopy. Depending upon the progress and nature of the resorption, it is divided into intracoronal or intracanal. The best way to treat the condition is with the help of endodontic therapy, which is commonly referred to as the root canal therapy. In this procedure the part which has been subject to central resorption is cleaned treated, filled and then the pulp and root canal elements are allowed to regrow. In cases where the crown, enamel or dentin are perforated beyond measures, dentists may even extract the tooth.

One of the best ways to prevent resorption is to maintain good oral, hygiene and go for regular checkups. Your dentist or doctor will be able to quickly spot any resorption that takes place, as it can also be external.